WHU

Center for Sports and Management

Welcome to the future of sports
The Metaverse will Change Professional Football
The metaverse and the technologies powering it are changing our lives and do not stop at professional football. As part of a future study, we invited 103 experts to discuss how blockchain, artificial intelligence, and immersive technologies could change professional football and its business models by 2030.
The Metaverse will Change Professional Football
The metaverse and the technologies powering it are changing our lives and do not stop at professional football. As part of a future study, we invited 103 experts to discuss how blockchain, artificial intelligence, and immersive technologies could change professional football and its business models by 2030.

Center for Sports and Management

Welcome to the future of sports
Media Contributions on The Future of Sports
Selected media articles on the results of our research and practice projects on the future of sport can be found here.
Media Contributions on The Future of Sports
Selected media articles on the results of our research and practice projects on the future of sport can be found here.

Center for Sports and Management

Welcome to the future of sports
MITxPro Online Course: Transformational Technologies
The Center for Sports and Management at WHU and MIT xPRO (Massachusetts Institute of Technology xPRO) are proud to announce the launch of the innovative online course "Transformational Technologies" – a new educational offering on game-changing technologies of the 21st century in general and their applications in the context of the renowned football club Borussia Dortmund in particular!
MITxPro Online Course: Transformational Technologies
The Center for Sports and Management at WHU and MIT xPRO (Massachusetts Institute of Technology xPRO) are proud to announce the launch of the innovative online course "Transformational Technologies" – a new educational offering on game-changing technologies of the 21st century in general and their applications in the context of the renowned football club Borussia Dortmund in particular!

Center for Sports and Management

Welcome to the future of sports
21st Century Sports: How Technologies Will Change Sports In The Digital Age
This book looks at the effects of technology-induced change in sport within the next five to ten years and provides food for thought for what lies further ahead.
21st Century Sports: How Technologies Will Change Sports In The Digital Age
This book looks at the effects of technology-induced change in sport within the next five to ten years and provides food for thought for what lies further ahead.
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The Center for Sports and Management

As the academic partner for leaders in the sports business, our Center for Sports and Management aims to positively impact the future of sports by inspiring, developing, and connecting excellent people.

Our research and teaching activities center around future readiness, corporate diversification strategies, the impact of technologies on sports, and stadium economics. In practical future studies, we try to sharpen the image of the future of sports. An overview of our future studies can be found here.

Meet the CSM Community

Professor Sascha L. Schmidt
Professor Sascha L. Schmidt
Director and Chairholder
apl. Prof. Dr. Dominik Schreyer
apl. Prof. Dr. Dominik Schreyer
Director CSM
Alexandra Büchling
Alexandra Büchling
Research Assistant
Dominik Geissler
Dominik Geissler
Research Assistant
Julian Hadwiger
Julian Hadwiger
Research Assistant
Alexander Liebhart
Alexander Liebhart
Research Assistant
Daniel Lugner
Daniel Lugner
Research Assistant
Dr. Daniel Beiderbeck
Dr. Daniel Beiderbeck
Affiliated Researcher
Lorenzo Kurras
Lorenzo Kurras
Managing Partner LKVH Holding GmbH
Peggy Bellmann
Peggy Bellmann
Ressortleitung Diversity Der Deutsche Olympische Sportbund
Florian Bünning
Florian Bünning
Direktor Strategie und Vermarktung Fortuna Düsseldorf
Sebastian Merten
Sebastian Merten
Dozent LUNEX University
Gerrit Heidemann
Gerrit Heidemann
Director Overseas Business 3V Automation
Felix Krause
Felix Krause
SVP Strategy and Business Development DAZN
Dr. Andreas Bergmann
Dr. Andreas Bergmann
COO | Sportmarketing & Eventmanagement MHM Majors
Dr. Caroline Päffgen
Dr. Caroline Päffgen
Co-Founder & Managing Director staede
Dr. Daniel Högele
Dr. Daniel Högele
Director Corporate Strategy & Business Development FC Bayern München
Dr. Fabian Ulrich
Dr. Fabian Ulrich
Head of International Relations and Strategic Projects Deutscher Fußball-Bund e.V.
Dr. Marc Lenz
Dr. Marc Lenz
CEO Deutsche Fußball Liga (DFL)
Dr. Mark Kassis
Dr. Mark Kassis
Strategic Data Manager UEFA
Dr. Sebastian Koppers
Dr. Sebastian Koppers
Project Lead TechLab Deutscher Fußball-Bund e.V.
Dr. Steffen Merkel
Dr. Steffen Merkel
CEO Deutsche Fußball Liga (DFL)
Dr. Nicolas Frevel
Dr. Nicolas Frevel
Head of Strategy Hertha BSC GmbH & Co. KGaA
Dr. Daniel Beiderbeck
Dr. Daniel Beiderbeck
Executive Assistant to Sporting Director / Head of Projects and Development Borussia Dortmund
Dr. Florian Holzmayer
Dr. Florian Holzmayer
Geschäftsführer Kabeltechnik Will + Folger GmbH
Dr. Tobias Streicher
Dr. Tobias Streicher
Manager Strategy Development/ Vaillant Group
Dr. Christoph Schlembach
Dr. Christoph Schlembach
Referent Vorstand Marketing & Vertrieb/ VfB Stuttgart
Dr. Klaus Eberhard
Dr. Klaus Eberhard
Leadership and Executive Search Consultant / Egon Zehnder
Dr. Caroline Amberger
Dr. Caroline Amberger
Investment Manager Storskogen
Dr. Johannes Fühner
Dr. Johannes Fühner
Head of Strategy & Business Intelligence Dyn Media GmbH
Dr. Nicolas Baecker
Dr. Nicolas Baecker
Boston Consulting Group Project Leader
Dr. Harry Küger
Dr. Harry Küger
FC Bayern München Manager Strategy & Business Development
Dr. Verena Svensson
Dr. Verena Svensson
Leiterin Strategie & Nachhaltigkeit Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG
Dr. Josef Welzmüller
Dr. Josef Welzmüller
Profi-Fußballer SpVgg Unterhachingen
Dr. Sebastian Flegr
Dr. Sebastian Flegr
Engagement Manager McKinsey & Company

As thought-leader in the world of sports business, we want to create positive impact on the future of sports

​Our purpose:
Create positive impact on the future of sports
Our mission:
Inspire, develop and connect excellent people as the academic partner for leaders in sports
​Our vision:
To become a thought-leader in the world of sports business

Research and teaching –
Find out more about our scientific work.

At the Center for Sports and Management, we examine the social and economic effects of sports. We argue economically, think beyond disciplines and act out of passion. In research, we want to break new ground and make teaching practice-oriented. In doing so, we orient ourselves to international quality standards. Find out more about our commitment to research and teaching.

Research
Research
According to Darwin, nothing is more permanent than change! To help sporting associations, clubs, and leagues better prepare for an uncertain future, we explore the potential impact of economic, social, and, most importantly, technological developments on the future of sports – empirically and interdisciplinary.
Teaching
Teaching
We provide our students with the newest research, a sound methodological basis, and the opportunity to apply their skills to tackle the most striking challenges of the sports industry.

MITxPro — Transformational Technologies: Applied Lessons from Sports

Learn about game-changing technologies in a digestible, engaging, asynchronous online format, illustrated through first-hand examples from the fascinating world of sports. Explore how you can apply these technologies to your own context and industry as part of a (digital) transformation process – the WHU and MIT xPRO way.

3 Modules. 3 Top Business Schools. 3 European Metropolises — 1 Business Management Program for Leaders in Sports Business

The European Sports Business Program (ESBP) prepares future leaders in sports business for challenges within their industry through a tailor-made executive education program. The program consists of 3 x 3-day on-site modules at the most prestigious European business schools specializing in sports business.

Doctoral Program on the "future of sports"

The Center for Sports and Management offers WHU students as well as external prospects excellent opportunities to enter the sports business - both in practice and in science. Former employees and alumni of Professor Schmidt now work at some of the finest addresses in the sports business, including the German Football League (DFL), the German Football Association (DFB) or German record football champion FC Bayern Munich. Have we aroused your interest in a career at the CSM? Find out more about our Doctoral Program and kindly send your application including motivational letter, CV and transcripts to Kerstin Forword (kerstin.forword(at)whu.edu).

Our publications – a selection of scientific articles and cases

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Merten, S., Schmidt, S., Winand, M. (accepted pre-print), Organisational capabilities for successful digital transformation: a global analysis of national football associations in the digital age, Journal of Strategy and Management.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Bünning, F. H., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (accepted pre-print), Awards are career catalysts for young talents in association football, European Sport Management Quarterly.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Beiderbeck, D., Evans, N., Frevel, N., Schmidt, S. (2023), The impact of technology on the future of football – a global Delphi study, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 187, 122186.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Identify critical roles to improve performance

Groysberg, B., Lin, E., Naik, A., Schmidt, S. (2023), Identify critical roles to improve performance: putting strategy into play requires knowing your organization’s crucial roles and making sure your best talent occupies them., MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 64 (4), 65122.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Krause, F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D. (2022), Career adaptability and career success: a constructive replication study, Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 115-124.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Schlembach, C., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Wunderlich, L. (2022), Forecasting the Olympic medal distribution: a socioeconomic machine learning model, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 175, 121314.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Flegr, S., Schmidt, S. (2022), Strategic management in eSports – a systematic review of the literature, Sport Management Review, Vol. 25 (4), pp. 631-655.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Krause, F., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (2022), Which female makes it to the top? exploring the gender differences in the role of nuanced personality and psychosocial traits in elite sports career progression, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 138, 103767.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Frevel, N., Beiderbeck, D., Schmidt, S. (2022), The impact of technology on sports – a prospective study, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 182, 121838.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Chan, H. F., Ulrich, F., Altman, H., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (2022), Beyond performance? The importance of subjective and objective physical appearance in award nominations and receptions in football, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 204, pp. 271-289.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Welzmueller, J., Schmidt, S. (2024), Consumer identification: an interdisciplinary review of the marketing and sport management literature and future research agenda, Management Review Quarterly, Vol. 74 (1), pp. 439-485.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Merkel, S., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Torgler, B. (2021), Optimism and positivity biases in performance appraisal ratings: empirical evidence from professional soccer, Applied Psychology : an International Review, Vol. 70 (3), pp. 1100-1127.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Beiderbeck, D., Frevel, N., Von Der Gracht, H., Schmidt, S., Schweitzer, V. (2021), The impact of COVID-19 on the European football ecosystem: a Delphi-based scenario analysis, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 165, 120577.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Fühner, J., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D. (2021), Are diversified football clubs better prepared for a crisis? First empirical evidence from the stock market, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 350-373.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Kassis, M., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Sutter, M. (2021), Psychological pressure and the right to determine the moves in dynamic tournaments: evidence from a natural field experiment, Games and Economic Behavior, Vol. 126, pp. 278-287.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Merten, S., Schmidt, S., Winand, M. (accepted pre-print), Organisational capabilities for successful digital transformation: a global analysis of national football associations in the digital age, Journal of Strategy and Management.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Bünning, F. H., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (accepted pre-print), Awards are career catalysts for young talents in association football, European Sport Management Quarterly.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Beiderbeck, D., Evans, N., Frevel, N., Schmidt, S. (2023), The impact of technology on the future of football – a global Delphi study, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 187, 122186.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Identify critical roles to improve performance

Groysberg, B., Lin, E., Naik, A., Schmidt, S. (2023), Identify critical roles to improve performance: putting strategy into play requires knowing your organization’s crucial roles and making sure your best talent occupies them., MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 64 (4), 65122.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Krause, F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D. (2022), Career adaptability and career success: a constructive replication study, Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 115-124.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Schlembach, C., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Wunderlich, L. (2022), Forecasting the Olympic medal distribution: a socioeconomic machine learning model, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 175, 121314.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Flegr, S., Schmidt, S. (2022), Strategic management in eSports – a systematic review of the literature, Sport Management Review, Vol. 25 (4), pp. 631-655.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Krause, F., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (2022), Which female makes it to the top? exploring the gender differences in the role of nuanced personality and psychosocial traits in elite sports career progression, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 138, 103767.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Frevel, N., Beiderbeck, D., Schmidt, S. (2022), The impact of technology on sports – a prospective study, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 182, 121838.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Chan, H. F., Ulrich, F., Altman, H., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Torgler, B. (2022), Beyond performance? The importance of subjective and objective physical appearance in award nominations and receptions in football, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 204, pp. 271-289.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Welzmueller, J., Schmidt, S. (2024), Consumer identification: an interdisciplinary review of the marketing and sport management literature and future research agenda, Management Review Quarterly, Vol. 74 (1), pp. 439-485.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Merkel, S., Chan, H. F., Schmidt, S., Torgler, B. (2021), Optimism and positivity biases in performance appraisal ratings: empirical evidence from professional soccer, Applied Psychology : an International Review, Vol. 70 (3), pp. 1100-1127.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Beiderbeck, D., Frevel, N., Von Der Gracht, H., Schmidt, S., Schweitzer, V. (2021), The impact of COVID-19 on the European football ecosystem: a Delphi-based scenario analysis, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 165, 120577.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Fühner, J., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D. (2021), Are diversified football clubs better prepared for a crisis? First empirical evidence from the stock market, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 350-373.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Group

Kassis, M., Schmidt, S., Schreyer, D., Sutter, M. (2021), Psychological pressure and the right to determine the moves in dynamic tournaments: evidence from a natural field experiment, Games and Economic Behavior, Vol. 126, pp. 278-287.

Case Study
Oberholzer-Gee, F. / Schmidt, S. L. / Imoberdorf, R. / Koppers, S.
Case Study
Groysberg, B. / Schmidt, S. L. / Hecht, E. M. S.
Case Study
Greyser, S. A. / Schmidt, S. L. / Holzmayer, F. (2018)
Case Study
Lakhani, K. / Schmidt, S. L. (2018)
Case Study
Groysberg, B. / Schmidt, S. L. / Thomke, A. / Herman, K. / Norris, M. (2016)
Case Study
Feng Zhu, Karim R. Lakhani, Sascha L. Schmidt, Kerry Herman
Case Study
Oberholzer-Gee, F. / Schmidt, S. L. / Imoberdorf, R. / Koppers, S.
Case Study
Groysberg, B. / Schmidt, S. L. / Hecht, E. M. S.
Case Study
Greyser, S. A. / Schmidt, S. L. / Holzmayer, F. (2018)
Case Study
Lakhani, K. / Schmidt, S. L. (2018)
Case Study
Groysberg, B. / Schmidt, S. L. / Thomke, A. / Herman, K. / Norris, M. (2016)
Case Study
Feng Zhu, Karim R. Lakhani, Sascha L. Schmidt, Kerry Herman
Book, Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland
Schmidt, S. L. (2024) - editor
Book, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China
Schmidt, S. L. (2022) - editor
Book, Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland
Schmidt, S. L. (2020) - editor

Book, Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland
Schmidt, S. L. (2024) - editor
Book, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China
Schmidt, S. L. (2022) - editor
Book, Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland
Schmidt, S. L. (2020) - editor

WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar

DELPHI STUDY: THE METAVERSE WILL CHANGE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL

Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2023)
Download (PDF, 2 MB)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2023)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2022)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Kurras, L. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. / Frevel, N. / Krüger, H. (2020)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Schreyer, D. / Krüger, H. (2019)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. / Frevel, N. (2019)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Krause, F. / Päffgen, C. (2018)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Krause, F. (2017)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Schreyer, D. / Päffgen, C. (2017)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar

DELPHI STUDY: THE METAVERSE WILL CHANGE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL

Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2023)
Download (PDF, 2 MB)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2023)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2022)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Kurras, L. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. et. al. (2021)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. / Frevel, N. / Krüger, H. (2020)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Schreyer, D. / Krüger, H. (2019)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Beiderbeck, D. / Frevel, N. (2019)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Krause, F. / Päffgen, C. (2018)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Krause, F. (2017)
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, Center for Sports and Management (CSM), Düsseldorf/Vallendar
Schmidt, S. L. / Schreyer, D. / Päffgen, C. (2017)

CSM in the media

Selected media contributions at a glance

Media outlets of all kinds regularly ask the Center for Sports and Management and Professor Schmidt for their opinion and assessment of certain topics related to the sports business. Also, Professor Schmidt regularly writes guest contributions in national and international quality media. Have a look at our past contributions or get in touch if you are in need of an interview partner or expert for sports business topics!

Get in touch with us –

We look forward to hearing from you.
Maria Dahl
Maria Dahl
Personal Assistant CSM